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Invasive species - Rosse stekelstaart (Oxyura jamaicensis) in Flanders, Belgium

Latest version published by Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) on Mar 11, 2019 Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)

Invasive species - Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) in Flanders, Belgium is a sampling event dataset published by the Research Institute of Nature and Forest (INBO). It contains information on 107 sampling events with 88 validated occurrences of invasive ruddy duck (with 2 extra occurrences reporting on white-headed duck) starting from 2009. These occurrences mainly originate from observations or cullings (through shooting or trapping) of individuals associated with official control actions in Flanders, North Belgium in response to the Bern Convention Action Plan on ruddy duck eradication (Robertson et al. 2015; Bern Convention 2016; Hall 2016). The data are used for feeding the Flemish biodiversity indicator on the progress of ruddy duck eradication. Also, they are used for official reporting to the Bern Convention Action Plan on the eradication of ruddy duck from the Western Palearctic (Bern Convention 2016; Hall 2016) and, as the species is included in the list of invasive species of Union Concern since 2016, for reporting to the EU IAS Regulation (1143/2014) (European Union 2014). The data are also used for research purposes. Here the dataset is published as a standardized Darwin Core Archive and includes for each event: a stable eventID, date and location of observation, and a short description of the sampling protocol (in the event core), supplemented with specific information for each occurrence: a stable occurrenceID, the scientific name and higher classification of the observed species, the number of recorded individuals, sex, life stage, and a reference to the observer and identifier of the record (in the occurrence extension). Issues with the dataset can be reported at

We have released this dataset to the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero waiver. We would appreciate it if you follow the INBO norms for data use ( when using the data. If you have any questions regarding this dataset, don't hesitate to contact us via the contact information provided in the metadata or via

This dataset was published as open data for the TrIAS project (Tracking Invasive Alien Species, Vanderhoeven et al. (2017)), with technical support provided by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO).

Data Records

The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 109 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Event (core)
  • Occurrence 

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 109 records in English (13 KB) - Update frequency: as needed
Metadata as an EML file download in English (21 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (18 KB)


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Adriaens T, Devisscher S, Brosens D, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2018): Invasive species - Rosse stekelstaart (Oxyura jamaicensis) in Flanders, Belgium. v1.1. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Dataset/Samplingevent.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Public Domain (CC0 1.0). Users may copy, modify, distribute and use the work, including for commercial purposes, without restriction.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 7522721f-4d97-4984-8231-c9e061ef46df.  Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Belgian Biodiversity Platform.


Samplingevent; Ruddy duck; Oxyura leucocephala; Belgium; alien species; TrIAS


Who created the resource:

Tim Adriaens
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Sander Devisscher
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Dimitri Brosens
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Peter Desmet
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Lien Reyserhove
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Tim Adriaens
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE

Who filled in the metadata:

Tim Adriaens
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Sander Devisscher
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Peter Desmet
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE
Lien Reyserhove
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) BE

Geographic Coverage

Flanders, Belgium.

Bounding Coordinates South West [50.67, 2.53], North East [51.51, 5.94]

Taxonomic Coverage

This survey reports on the occurrences of the invasive ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) in Flanders in the wild. Ruddy duck is listed as an invasive species of EU concern sensu the EU Regulation 1143/2014, which requires member states to prevent or manage its introduction and spread (European Union 2014).

Kingdom  Animalia
Phylum  Chordata
Species  Oxyura jamaicensis

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2009-01-01 / 2018-01-01

Project Data

Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS), identify emerging species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving IAS policy landscape both locally and internationally. The project Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS) aims to do this for Belgium. For a full project description, see Vanderhoeven et al. (2017,

Title Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS)
Identifier TrIAS
Funding TrIAS is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO) call for Belgian Research Action through Interdisciplinary Networks (BRAIN).
Study Area Description Belgium.
Design Description The project builds on two components: 1) The establishment of a data mobilization framework for alien species data from diverse data sources and 2) the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. TrIAS uses facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF,, standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG, and expertise from LifeWatch INBO ( to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data are gathered from a large set of regional, national and international initiatives, including citizen science data, with a wide taxonomic scope from marine, terrestrial and freshwater environments. Observation data are funnelled in repeatable ways to GBIF. In parallel, a Belgian checklist of alien species is established, benefiting from various taxonomic and project-based checklists foreseen for GBIF publication.

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Quentin Groom
Diederik Strubbe
Sonia Vanderhoeven

Sampling Methods

The ruddy duck occurrences mainly originate from observations performed during culling (through shooting or trapping) operations. Eradication is performed by a small operational team involving agency officials and a shooter. This is supplemented with actions taken by agency officials in public nature reserves. Every culling action is reported on a standard field form which is transmitted by the ANB to the INBO by email after the action. This form includes: date, site name, hour of arrival at and departure from the site, number of ruddy duck observed (female, male, juvenile, eggs), number of ruddy duck culled (female, male, juvenile, eggs), method used (shooting, egg destruction, use of boat, use of sound, other methods), number of shots fired with rifle or with shotgun and type of ammunition used (in case of shooting), names of team members (communicator, shooter) and tick boxes (none, moderate, strong) for assessing weather circumstances (rain, wind, fog, cloud cover), as these can influence the accuracy of shooting. These observations include actions where ruddy ducks were observed but where the action was unsuccessful as the birds could not be shot. To report on management actions, a standard data form is used. These records are then fed into the INBO survey database.

Study Extent The dataset contains data on ruddy duck observations and culling (through shooting or trapping) in Flanders. Flemish authorities launched an action plan for ruddy duck eradication in 2011 (Agentschap voor Natuur en BoThe dataset contains data on ruddy duck observations and culling (through shooting or trapping) in Flanders. Flemish authorities launched an action plan for ruddy duck eradication in 2011 (Agentschap voor Natuur en Bos 2011). Before that date, breeding pairs were locally tackled by field managers. These actions were sometimes reported in the literature and supplemented to the dataset (e.g. Spanoghe et al. 2010). Since 2012 actions are under coordination of the Agency for Nature and Forest (ANB) and the INBO and are reported to a follow-up committee where different stakeholders are represented.
Quality Control See step description.

Method step description:

  1. The source data for this standardized occurrences dataset is contained in the survey database of the Research Institute of Nature and Forest (INBO).
  2. A SQL script was developed to extract and transform the data to Darwin Core. This mapping script was uploaded to a GitHub repository ( and includes the following steps:
  3. Perform some basic data cleaning of the raw data.x
  4. Generate stable and unique identifiers for each event (eventID) and occurrence (occurrenceID).
  5. Create an event core file with all sampling events whether or not the target species was observed (
  6. Create a occurrence extension file (
  7. The resulting Darwin Core views are connected with the INBO IPT and documented with metadata.
  8. The dataset is is published and registered with GBIF.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Agentschap voor Natuur en Bos (2011). Protocol beheer rosse stekelstaart. Interne nota.
  2. European Union (2014). Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species. Official Journal of the European Union 317, 4.11.2014, p. 35–55
  3. Robertson, P., T. Adriaens, A. Caizergues, P. Cranswick, K. Devos, C. Gutiérrez-Expósito, I. Henderson, B. Hughes, A. Mill, and G. Smith. 2015. Towards the European eradication of the North American ruddy duck. Biological Invasions 17:9-12. s10530-014-0704-3
  4. Spanoghe G., Faveyts W., & Vermeersch G. (2010). Broedende Rosse Stekelstaarten Oxyura jamaicensis in Vlaanderen: een aanwinst ? Natuur.oriolus 76(1): 1-7.
  5. Vanderhoeven S, Adriaens T, Desmet P, Strubbe D, Backeljau T, Barbier Y, Brosens D, Cigar J, Coupremanne M, De Troch R, Eggermont H, Heughebaert A, Hostens K, Huybrechts P, Jacquemart A, Lens L, Monty A, Paquet J, Prévot C, Robertson T, Termonia P, Van De Kerchove R, Van Hoey G, Van Schaeybroeck B, Vercayie D, Verleye T, Welby S, Groom Q (2017) Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS): Building a data-driven framework to inform policy. Research Ideas and Outcomes 3: e13414.

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers