Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Belgium
The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Belgium is a species checklist published by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). It contains information on 3,000+ validated non-native taxa in Belgium and serves as the national reference for the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS, Pagad et al. 2018). The checklist is created through an open and reproducible workflow developed for the TrIAS project (http://trias-project.be, see Methodology). It is published here as a standardized Darwin Core Archive and includes for each taxon: the scientific name, higher classification and stable taxon identifier, provided by the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy (in the taxon core) and related information in three extensions, provided by the source checklists (or the most trustworthy one in case of competing information). The related information consists of the year of first introduction and last assessment/observation in Belgium and where available its regions (given as a year range in the event date in the distribution extension), coarse habitat information (in the species profile extension) and the pathway(s) of introduction, native ranges (following UN geoscheme), and invasion stage in Belgium (in the description extension). The source for each piece of information is credited. Issues with the dataset can be reported at https://github.com/trias-project/unified-checklist
We have released this dataset under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0). We would appreciate it if you follow the GBIF citation guidelines (https://www.gbif.org/citation-guidelines) when using the data. If you have any questions regarding this dataset, don’t hesitate to contact us via the contact information provided in the metadata or via https://twitter.com/trias_project.
This dataset was published as open data for the TrIAS project (Tracking Invasive Alien Species http://trias-project.be, Vanderhoeven et al. 2017), with technical support provided by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO).
The data in this checklist resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 3,036 records.
3 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
- Taxon (core)
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Desmet P, Reyserhove L, Oldoni D, Groom Q, Adriaens T, Vanderhoeven S, Pagad S (2021): Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Belgium. v1.11. Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15468/xoidmd
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
Checklist; Inventorythematic; country_BE; checklist; inventory; alien species; non-native; invasive; Belgium; TrIAS; Checklist
Who created the resource:
Who can answer questions about the resource:
This checklist covers non-native species recorded in (at least part of) Belgium, and includes terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [49.49, 2.53], North East [51.51, 6.41]|
This checklist includes registered non-native taxa present in Belgium. It covers 3,036 unique taxa and five kingdoms: Plantae (2,264 taxa), Animalia (744 taxa), Fungi (25 taxa), Chromista (2 taxa) and Protozoa (1 taxon). This number of species is expected to increase with future updates. All taxonomic information is provided by the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy (https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei).
|Kingdom||Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Chromista, Protozoa|
|Start Date / End Date||1500-01-01 / 2020-12-31|
Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS), identify emerging species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving IAS policy landscape both locally and internationally. The project Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS) aims to do this for Belgium. For a full project description, see Vanderhoeven et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e13414).
|Title||Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS)|
|Funding||TrIAS is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO) call for Belgian Research Action through Interdisciplinary Networks (BRAIN).|
|Study Area Description||Belgium.|
|Design Description||The project builds on two components: 1) The establishment of a data mobilization framework for alien species data from diverse data sources and 2) the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. TrIAS uses facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, http://www.gbif.org), standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG, http://www.tdwg.org) and expertise from the Open science lab for biodiversity (https://oscibio.inbo.be) to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data are gathered from a large set of regional, national and international initiatives, including citizen science data, with a wide taxonomic scope from marine, terrestrial and freshwater environments. Observation data are funnelled in repeatable ways to GBIF. In parallel, a Belgian checklist of alien species is established, benefiting from various taxonomic and project-based checklists foreseen for GBIF publication.|
The personnel involved in the project:
This unified checklist is the result of two open and reproducible data pipelines developed for the TrIAS project (http://trias-project.be). In the data publication pipeline, we use the Checklist recipe (https://github.com/trias-project/checklist-recipe/wiki) to standardize and publish a selection of authoritative species checklists as Darwin Core Archives to GBIF. Predominantly, these checklists record the presence of alien species in Belgium for a specific taxon group or habitat and are maintained by their respective authors. In the data processing pipeline, we extract all Belgian non-native taxa from these checklists and unify their taxonomy using the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy (https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei). This automated process is implemented and documented at https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/ and described in brief in "Method step description". The sources used for the unified checklist are: 1. Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium (Verloove et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.15468/wtda1m), 2. Checklist of alien birds of Belgium (Preda et al. 2019, https://doi.org/10.15468/wr3gis), 3. Checklist of non-native freshwater fishes in Flanders, Belgium (Verreycken et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.15468/xvuzfh), 4. Checklist of alien herpetofauna of Belgium (van Doorn et al. 2021, https://doi.org/10.15468/pnxu4c), 5. Inventory of alien macroinvertebrates in Flanders, Belgium (Boets et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.15468/yxcq07), 6. Registry of introduced terrestrial molluscs in Belgium (Backeljau et al. 2019, https://doi.org/10.15468/t13kwo), 7. Checklist of alien species in the Scheldt estuary in Flanders, Belgium (Soors et al. 2021, https://doi.org/10.15468/8zq9s4), 8. Catalogue of the Rust Fungi of Belgium (Vanderweyen et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.15468/2dboyn), 9. WRiMS: World Register of Introduced Marine Species (Flanders Marine Institute 2019, https://doi.org/10.14284/347), 10. Ad hoc checklist of alien species in Belgium (Reyserhove et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.15468/3pmlxs), and 11. RINSE - Pathways and vectors of biological invasions in Northwest Europe (Zieritz et al. 2018, https://doi.org/10.15468/guejza)
|Study Extent||This checklist includes all registered non-native taxa present (present, common, rare, irregular) in Belgium included in the source checklists (see sampling description).|
|Quality Control||Source checklists are verified by their authors and ranked by trust before processing. Scientific names not recognized or considered synonyms by the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy are verified (agree to lump or decide to keep as separate taxon) before inclusion (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/3_verify_taxa.html).|
Method step description:
- Data for this checklist are retrieved, unified and standardized from source checklists through a series of RMarkdown scripts (https://github.com/trias-project/unified-checklist/tree/master/src) that are versioned on GitHub (https://github.com/trias-project/unified-checklist) and which include the following steps:
- Choose published checklists to use as sources for this unified checklist and retrieve their taxa from GBIF (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/1_get_taxa.html).
- Filter taxa on their associated distribution information to only target non-native species present in Belgium (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/1_get_taxa.html#filter-on-distribution).
- Retrieve the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy information assigned for each taxon, as well as their originally published distribution, species profile and description information (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/2_get_information.html).
- Verify (by humans) the synonymy information returned by the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, i.e. accepting or rejecting the lumping of taxa that differ in their scientific name, but can be considered the same within or across checklists (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/3_verify_taxa.html).
- Unify taxa within and across checklists to get a unique list of taxa and append higher classification information using the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/4_unify_taxa.html).
- Unify related information to get a single distribution per location per taxon and species profile per taxon (based on the most trustworthy source checklist in case of competing information), as well as all unique descriptions (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/5_unify_information.html), including standardization of the native range to UN geoscheme regions.
- Standardize the checklist to a Darwin Core Archive (https://trias-project.github.io/unified-checklist/6_dwc_mapping) containing 1) a taxon core (http://rs.gbif.org/core/dwc_taxon.xml), 2) a distribution extension (http://rs.gbif.org/extension/gbif/1.0/distribution.xml) with one distribution per taxon, 3) a species profile extension (http://rs.gbif.org/extension/gbif/1.0/speciesprofile.xml) and 4) a description extension (http://rs.gbif.org/extension/gbif/1.0/description.xml). The description extension contains information on the pathway of introduction (using the pathway vocabulary from the Convention on Biological Diversity (2014)), native range (using the WGSRPD vocabulary from Brummitt (2001) where applicable), and invasion stage (based on Blackburn et al. (2011)).
- The resulting Darwin Core data files are uploaded to the INBO IPT and documented with metadata.
- The dataset is published and registered with GBIF.
- Backeljau T, Reyserhove L, Desmet P (2019). Registry of introduced terrestrial molluscs in Belgium. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/t13kwo
- Blackburn TM, Pysek P, Bacher S, Carlton JT, Duncan RP, Jarosik V, Wilson JRU & Richardson DM (2011) A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.03.023
- Boets P, Lock K, Mertens J, Goethals P, Adriaens T, Groom Q, Brosens D, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2018). Inventory of alien macroinvertebrates in Flanders, Belgium. Version 1.5. Ghent University. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/yxcq07
- Brummitt RK (2001) World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, Edition 2. Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) http://www.tdwg.org/standards/109
- Convention on Biological Diversity (2014) Pathways of introduction of invasive species, their prioritization and management. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/18/9/Add.1. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta-18/official/sbstta-18-09-add1-en.pdf
- Flanders Marine Institute (2019). World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.14284/347
- GBIF Secretariat (2017). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei
- Pagad S, Genovesi P, Carnevali L, Schigel D, McGeoch MA (2018). Introducing the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. Sci. Data 5:170202 https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.202
- Preda C, Adriaens T, Strubbe D, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2019). Checklist of alien birds of Belgium. Version 1.2. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/wr3gis
- Reyserhove L, Groom Q, Adriaens T, Desmet P, Dekoninck W, Van Keer K, Lock K (2018). Ad hoc checklist of alien species in Belgium. Version 1.2. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/3pmlxs
- Soors J, Van de Meutter F, Van Ryckeghem G, Adriaens T, Reyserhove L (2021). Checklist of alien species in the Scheldt estuary in Flanders, Belgium. Version 1.7. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/8zq9s4
- Vanderhoeven S, Adriaens T, Desmet P, Strubbe D, Backeljau T, Barbier Y, Brosens D, Cigar J, Coupremanne M, De Troch R, Eggermont H, Heughebaert A, Hostens K, Huybrechts P, Jacquemart A, Lens L, Monty A, Paquet J, Prévot C, Robertson T, Termonia P, Van De Kerchove R, Van Hoey G, Van Schaeybroeck B, Vercayie D, Verleye T, Welby S, Groom Q (2017) Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS): Building a data-driven framework to inform policy. Research Ideas and Outcomes 3: e13414. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e13414
- Vanderweyen A, Fraiture A, Groom Q, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2018). Catalogue of the Rust Fungi of Belgium. Version 1.1. Botanic Garden Meise. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/2dboy
- van Doorn L, Reyserhove L, Speybroeck J, Adriaens T (2021). Checklist of alien herpetofauna of Belgium. Version 1.2. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/pnxu4c
- Verloove F, Groom Q, Brosens D, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2018). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Version 1.7. Botanic Garden Meise. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/wtda1m
- Verreycken H, Belpaire C, Adriaens T, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2018). Checklist of non-native freshwater fishes in Flanders, Belgium. Version 1.4. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/xvuzfh
- Zieritz A, Gallardo Armas B, Baker S J, Britton R, van Valkenburg J L, Verreycken H, Aldridge D, Desmet P, Reyserhove L (2018). RINSE - Pathways and vectors of biological invasions in Northwest Europe. Version 1.2. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/guejza